TURKEY

          Turkey is a country which is in the middle of three continents. Its big land is in Anatolia despite a little land is in Europe. Its three sides surrounded by sea and this provides differences. This essay will describe Turkey’s history, climate and agriculture, import and export, tourism.

           Turkey has long-standing background. Turkey’s history is based on the Ottoman. Ottoman was founded in 1299 by Sultan Osman. After the Sultan Osman, Ottoman managed by other sultans. Ottoman was strong state and they have more land than Turkey. In 1453, Istanbul was conquered by Fatih Sultan Mehmet. Since Ottoman has Istanbul, people started to live who has different religion. In Kanuni Sultan Süleyman time, Ottoman reached the widest range. However, Ottoman could not follow the innovations. Furthermore, Ottoman destroyed because of the wars. Republic of Turkey was established by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 29th October, 1923. Also on this day, Atatürk was chosen the president of Turkey by one-hundred fifty-eight members of parliament. Several innovations done by Atatürk and Republic of Turkey started to progress again. In 10th of November, Atatürk died and Turkey’s second president chosen as İsmet İnönü by members of parliament. Until nowadays, Turkey was managed by eleven presidents. Nowadays, Turkey is managed by Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.

          Turkey’s special location provides different climates and agriculture. Firstly, there are significant differences in climatic conditions from one region to the other because of its location. The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea have a temperate Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Black Sea have a temperate Blacksea climate with warm, wet summers and cold, wet winters. Turkey’s all climate condition provides different types of product. Turkey has different types of fruits, vegetables, and grains in every region. For instance, wheatberry, barley, oat, rye, lentil, hazelnut are grown in the Black Sea region. Also, citrus is grown in the Black Sea region because of Black Sea’s special location. Actually, citrus grows in the Mediterranean region. Mediterranean region’s foods are banana, fig, grape, watermelon, rice, lemon, strawberries etcetera. Aegean region’s foods are similar to the Mediterranean region. Tomato, pepper, eggplant, watermelon, apricot, apple are grown in Eastern Anatolia and Southeastern Anatolia Region. Although Marmara Region has been known the industrial city, wheat berry, corn, rice, mulberry, peach, cherry are grown there.

         Import and export power is important as food production variety as. Turkey has to import some products from other countries. For instance, although Turkey wheat berry is grown , it is not enough for Turkey’s population. Wheat berry is imported from Russia, the U.S., and Mexico. Potatoes is imported from Holland, Germany and France. Also, onion from Russia and Holland, sunflowers from Moldova, Romania and Bulgaria, the apple from Italy and France, tomato from Russia, Romania and Ukraine, etcetera. For exporting examples, lemon, cherry, mandarin, orange, grapes and fig are emported to Russia, Iraq, Germany, Romania and Ukraine. Also, lemon is the most important export product in Turkey.

        In terms of natural beauty and historical richness of Turkey, it is among the leading countries of the world. Turkey’s touristic places are known as mount Nemrut, Pamukkale, Hagia Sofia, Ephesus, Cappadocia, Topkapı Palace, Sumela Manastry etcetera. Istanbul has different cultures, such as Hagia Sofia. Hagia Sofia was built as Patriarchal Cathedral by I. Justinian. When Fatih Sultan Mehmet conquered İstanbul, he covered it a mosque. Istanbul still has different cultures’ work of arts and it provides to touristic attractions.

       To sum up, Turkey is the one of most important country in the world with its strong history, special location and beauties.

Post Author: Fatma Demirtas

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